重慶大學 2004 年（秋季）博士入學考試英語試題 1
重慶大學 2004 年（秋季）博士入學考試英語試題答案及解析 13
重慶大學 2003 年博士入學考試英語試題 20
重慶大學 2004 年（秋季）博士入學考試英語試題
Part I: Listening Comprehension（略） Part II: Reading Comprehension (40%) Section 1
Directions: There are 2 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). you should decide on the best choice and write the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage:
One of the biggest barriers to effective negotiation and a major cause of stalemate (僵局) is the tendency for bargainers to get trapped in their own perspectives. It’s simply too easy for people to become overly confident of their opinions. Operating in a closed world of their making they tell themselves they are right and the others are wrong. They consider the merits of their positions but neglect the other party’s valid objections. They push their agendas, merely with the same argument, and may not pick up on cues that their words aren’t being heard.
It’s safe to assume that the other part is just as convinced that his or her own demands are justified. Moreover, bargainers can only speculate what another’s agenda might be -----
hidden or otherwise. Appreciative moves to draw out another’s perspective help negotiations understand why the other party feels a certain way. They signal to the other side that different opinions and perspectives are important. By creating opportunities to discover something new and unexpected, appreciative moves can break a stalemate.
Everyone agreed that a joint venture negotiated by HMO executive Donna Hitchcock between her organization and an insurance company has mutual benefits on both sides.
Although the deal looked good on paper, implementation stalled. Hitchcock couldn’t understand where the resistance was coming and why. In attempt to unfreeze the situation, she arranged a meeting with her counterpart from the insurance company. After a brief update, Hitchcock asked about any unexpected effects the joint venture was exerting on the insurance organization and on her counterpart’s work life. That appreciative move immediately broke the logjam. From her counterpart’s perspectives, she learned, the new arrangements stretched already overworked departments and had not yet produced additional revenues to hire more staff. Even more important, her counterpart was personally bearing the burden of the increased work.
Hitchcock was genuinely sympathetic to these concerns. The extra work was legitimate obstacles to implementation. Once she understood the reason behind the resistance, the two were able to strategize on ways to alleviate the overload until the additional revenues kicked in.
1. The best title for the passage might be .
A) Avoid Obstacles to Negotiation
B) Respect Your Counterpart
C) Solicit New Perspectives
D) Listen to Other’s Objection
2. Many people are likely to push their agenda just because .
A) there are no cues that they are not understood.
B) they believe they are away right
C) they have too much confidence in their ability
D) there no any valid objections.
3. The purpose for the author in writing Paragraph 3 is .
A) to suggest how we can become more appreciative
B) to explain why many people often fail in the negotiation
C) to suggest how we can value other people’s values
D) to explain why many people often expect something new
4. The word “logjam” (Line 6, Par, 4) means .
5. Hitchcock couldn’t succeed in implementing the plan at beginning in that .
A) she didn’t know what difficulties her counterpart had
B) she didn’t show the potential advantages to her counterpart
C) she didn’t expect what would happen in the cooperation
D) she didn’t find proper strategies and methods.
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage:
Remember that the people you work with are not workers or helpers or assistants or trainees or lackeys or gofers or employees or superiors. And if you think if them as people--- separate, important, unique human beings—they will sense it and will respond by trusting you, by helping you, by accepting your suggestions, even by forgiving your blunders.
Indeed, if people believe that you are acting in their best interests, they will support your actions, even if what you are doing is not in their best interests.
But if people do not believe what you are doing is in their best interests, they will not support your actions, even if what you are doing is in their best interests.
None of this can be faked, save by a consummate actor, which you probably are not. It must come from the heart. You must care about them as people. You must like them, if you cannot forget about becoming an idealist now before you waste half a lifetime striving only to ultimately fail.
Of course some people in management positions feel they should remain aloof from their “troops” that getting to know them personally weakens their authority and limits their ability to lead.
Nothing could be further from the truth. Nobody save a goose following a stranger. And nobody, not even a loon, is inspired by aloofness. When companies that are run by strangers actually do success, it is in spite of them, not because of them.
After all, do you want to work with someone who doesn’t give a damn about you? They why do you think other do?
Idealists open doors and tear down walls. They care. And people who work with them know they care because they give of themselves.
Unapproachable leaders who hide in their offices, who neither mingle nor probe, who protect themselves with the shield of authority they are not idealist. They are not even
leaders they are directors.
6. What should we do to gain the trust of other people working with us?
A) We should treat them as your own friend
B) We should take care of their individual needs.
C) We should show our sincere trust to them.
D) We should forgive them for making mistakes.
7. What can we know about “a consummate actor” working with you?
A) He has no real friends in his life.
B) He is looked down by other people around you.
C) He is skillful to pretend to care about you.
D) He is separate from other people.
8. According to the passage an idealist is a good leader .
A) who can care about employees as people.
B) who has much authority and ability
C) who is well trained in managing people
D) who is always open-minded
9. What can we know about a company with a stranger as its leader?
A) The company can go forward by itself.
B) The company can have no chance to get success.
C) The stranger can play little role in the company’s management
D) The stranger can never make the company to be more successful
10. Which of the following will prevent you from being an idealist?
A) Talking to people
B) Being busy with office job
C) Tearing down walls
D) Opening your office doors.
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer question 11-22 below.
THE BEAM-OPERATED TRAFFIC SYSTEM
The Need for Change
The number of people killed each year on the road is more than for all other types of avoidable deaths except for those whose lives are cut short by tobacco use. Yet road deaths are tolerated--- so great is our need to travel about swiftly and economically.
Oddly, modern vehicle engine design- the combustion engine-has largely unchanged since it was conceived over 100 years ago. A huge amount of money and effort is being channeled into alternative engine designs, the most popular being based around substitute fuels such as heavy water, or the electric battery charged by the indirect burning of conventional fuels, or by solar power.
Nevertheless, such innovations will do little to halt the carnage on the road. What is needed is a radical rethinking of the road system itself.
The Beam-Operate Traffic System, Proposed by a group of Swedish engineers, does away with tarred roads and independently controlled vehicles and replaces them with innumerable small carriages suspended from electrified rails along a vast interconnected wed of steel beams crisscrossing the skyline. The entire system would be computer-controlled and operate without human intervention.
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